Dark circles? Low levels of vitamin D and K may be to blame
Winter ages a woman's eyes by four years and eight months, a team of beauty scientists have claimed.
The anti-ageing experts studied the eyes of 5,000 women throughout the seasons for a clinical study for Adonia Organics.
They found bags under the eyes were significantly darker during the colder months.
The team concluded the process is caused by a lack of sunlight which brings paler skin and emphasises the bags.
This is made worse by a higher level of fatigue in the winter due to a lower level of Vitamin D, generated by the body in sunlight, and subsequently less serotonin, which is the body's 'feel good chemical'.
Anti-ageing expert Dr Mark Binette said: 'More science is coming out linking the lack of Vitamin D and K as one of the causes that plagues us with dark circles and puffy eyes; especially as it relates to fatigue and immune related issues.
'Once you have them, it is usually difficult to reverse them.
'Our research has shown that women are worried about the ageing effect of dark circles more so than wrinkles which are easier to tackle and overcome.
'Lacking in Vitamins D and K has a considerable negative effect on the appearance of dark circles and puffy eyes and can age a woman by 4.7 years putting over ten per cent on a woman's age of 40.'
Dark circles are one of the most common skin problems, and are often caused by tiny capillaries that leak blood beneath the surface of the skin.
As this blood starts to oxidize, it turns a dark blue colour similar to a bruise.
The thin skin under the eyes allows fluid to build up and dark circles and puffy eyes to appear.
This becomes more obvious in winter as skin becomes more transparent due to lack of sun and tanning.
In the summer dark circles are easier to hide as people suffer less from fatigue and the skin is lightly tanned.
Additionally, during the summer, we experience higher serotonin levels, which raises our mood, when the skin is exposed to sunlight.
When sunlight is in short supply, our serotonin levels fall and we don't have so much energy.
The study, carried out during clinical trials at AMA Laboratories in New York, found 82 per cent suffered from dark circles and puffy eyes in the winter as opposed to just 38 per cent in the summer.
The study was carried out among women aged 27 and 60 and the results were consistent across the board.
Researchers found women regain their youthful good looks in the summer once the cold, dark nights have eased.